La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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These are crises that have been called circumstantial Slaikeu,examples of which include the receipt of bad news e.

Temporal incertitude is the ignorance about the moment in which the event is going to be produced. The role of beliefs of all kind, rntrevista that of existential beliefs, is more evident and ostensible when indicating to the individual what is acceptable in the search for adaptation in those cases where high-impact, acute changes in life are imminent, a characteristic lizwrraga in any CS.

Suffering, on the contrary, constitutes an intensification of pain by way of cognitive appraisals magnifying loss and its consequences, highlighting the unfair characteristics of the crisis-triggering event, and generating attitudes of self-compassion leading even to transform the emotion into a tool for the attainment of secondary benefits.

What is inevitable is the interpretation of severe harm, a primary appraisal cognitive process, with the resulting emotional consequence of pain caused by the occurred harm, a pain that stimulates escape behaviors, and the interpretation of the threat of harm worsening, which stimulates avoidance behaviors. In the natural sequencing of relatively simple behaviors that are chained to form complex actions, the consequences of complex actions being competent as a professional are long-term outcomes of the other consequences having studied for satisfactory passing of the courses.

Loss of a job might trigger a bigger crisis if it happens to the individual at a moment in which she must attend to important family responsibilities than if it occurred at a different moment.

Psychological Review2 Following Lazarus and Folkman bin this paper we adopt motivaciona viewpoint developed by Hans Selye Bensabat, ; Selye, regarding the evolution of the General Adaptation Syndrome to describe the impact of the duration of the event and its evolution throughout the stages of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion, an approach that will be addressed again later.

Both types are learned throughout the course of life, lizarragaa in their formation the personal experience in the particular socio-cultural environment where the person has grown up plays a very important role.

Effects of fear arousing communications. Alternatively, pain is susceptible to reasonable management, as occurs in situations in which a person has to deal with chronic physical pain. Incertitude is the probability a person attributes to the real occurrence of an event.

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Psychophysiology46 In lizarrgaa sense, the clarity of the solution has to lead to the double effect of increasing the confidence in the possibility of controlling harm or pain, and increasing individual confidence in the probability of effectively exerting such control.

Regarding the role of cognitive appraisal, the viewpoint that we motivacionxl to in the proposal of DPP-CS is that of Lazarus and Folkman a, brelated to the functions of cognitive appraisal in the stress response.

An issue to which there is seemingly no final answer is that related to the temporal relations between efficacy expectations and self-efficacy expectations as factors determining whether the person would get involved in a particular behavior.


This requires pinpointing what these events are, as general ideas about the critical event do not necessarily express the specific conditions of that event that are acting to bring about the emotional response.

What can be done in such a situation? The objective of this paper is to present a cognitive-behavioral model that makes it possible to explain the crisis situation CS in terms of intense motivational involvement, and to propose a brief motivational intervention proposal in CS. An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion.

Furthermore, other interventions different from crisis intervention can be the most appropriate in cases where the crisis sets the stage for an anxiety disorder e. Onset of the Crisis Situation The CS is initiated with the presence of a set of objective triggering stimuli.

In order to characterize CSthe label of dual parallel processing in crisis situation will be used. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Luis E. Harm control is conceptualized as a course of actions that is initiated when the efficacy of response has a minimum value higher than that of fear, from which a protective motivation becomes more prevalent over defensive motivation.

This coping demand is also subject to cognitive processing by the person, by means of representations proper to a secondary appraisal process. It is for this reason that the modification of these beliefs becomes more relevant as a substantial element of motivational intervention, which has the property of being brief in the sense that it is centered on the production of clear and simple coping decisions or intentions, as an initial step in the solution of a complex CS.

Fear appeals and persuasion: For example, in a crisis generated by the kidnapping or disappearance of a loved one, incertitude about the event leads to a state of confusion in which it is quite difficult to perform control anticipations and reasonable decision-making, because of the paralysis of any anticipatory coping process, and practically for the only thing the person can do is to prepare for the worst of the possible consequences.

In the above example, a student who endures a critical situation of the affective sort e. University of Chicago Press. Making sense of our emotions.

The fact of being exposed to an aversive event, generally denoting important loss, occurring in some vital area of great personal value, naturally urges the person to act to escape harm and avoid its worsening Bradley, ; the course of action an individual adopts will depend on the margin of harm reversibility in many occasions, actually irreversibleon the responses repertory a person has available, and on the established relation between those responses and the CSparticularly the ability the person attributes to the responses to modify the situation, and the self-attributed ability to get involved in the performance of the response.

More precisely, DPP-CS is an applied extension of Kim Witte’s dual extended parallel process model, which is the specific theoretical model underlying it. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail.

This change can be conceptualized as an important restructuring of the frame of physiological, psychological, and social needs that motivate a person’s actions, and it is an essential element to differentiate a CS from other situations of severe stress that do not represent a crisis as properly defined.

That complex state of emotional experience during a CS makes it adopt a syndrome-like nature rather than one of pure expression of an isolated emotion. In the particular situation of this illustration, clear external signals would be available to facilitate the process of analysis and decision-making, although the process would be blocked if the person failed to discriminate those singularities in the broader general context of the pain produced by the economic loss that originated the crisis.


Level 2 is formed by a dual system of information processing in which a central role is played by the cognitive economy throughout the information processing under the lead of essential biases and heuristics on the one hand System Aand by the information processing under the lead of schemata which self-perpetuate maladaptive schemata System Bon the other.

L’ENTREVISTA MOTIVACIONAL by Claudia Garcia Sola on Prezi Next

Duration refers to the time during which the event originating the crisis continues. El proceso emocional [The emotional process]. This feedback assumes a more evident and objective manifestation, no longer anticipatory, when a consequence of adaptation is produced which has retroactive implications by way of reappraisal loops which modify the original primary and secondary appraisals. The wheel of life: Effective interventions wntrevista the increase in readiness to change].

Fear control is conceptualized as a course of defensive actions that is initiated when the severity of harm has a minimum value from which a defensive motivation is produced. A chronic emotional pain quite similar to chronic physical pain, which allows an illustration of our previous assertion, is the so-called “nostalgia” Paniagua,where the evocation of memories and the expression of longings constitute the elements of cognitive appraisal contributing to the increase of pain, but also in which the challenge of living more in terms of the present rather than of the past corresponds to an adaptive challenge for the person.

Both of these processes are necessary in the course of coping with a CS as they lead to necessary results for the attainment of personal adaptation in the post-crisis. Crisis intervention, even if brief, is broader and more lasting, encompassing all the time and factors inherent to the crisis Slaikeu,whereas emergency intervention is more restricted in lizsrraga and covers only some selective aspects of the entrevists, such as the consequences of acute biological harm, or the behavioral consequences expressed in acts of aggression to others or self-aggression, as in suicide.

Nevertheless, their integration as an explanatory model of crises is relatively new and requires the development of empirical studies verifying it; the novelty of the model is of a great interest regarding the addressing of a crisis in a normal stage of its moyivacional, when it has not yet assumed pathological manifestations and as a field of application of BMI.

A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: This is the process that determines the cognitive essence and the importance of feedback loops between appraisal and the emotional pain response see Figure 1which provide the person with the elements of required information that will enable her to adopt some coping strategy following a course of control of pain, control of harm, or both, and to develop future expectations of adaptation.

American Journal of Public Health61 ,